Quantum computing is an emerging technology. Quantum computers use Quantum Mechanics to perform operations and store data. Quantum computers are made of Quantum bits (a ‘qubit‘) instead of binary bits, which we currently use on electronic devices. A qubit can be a 0,1 or both at the same time.
This means Quantum Computers can process and store significantly more information than normal computers at a much faster speed. Quantum Computing could help us understand some of the biggest questions in science such as dark matter and black holes, as well as solve complex mathematical problems such as those used in encrypting credit card details online, cracking codes for military purposes, etc.
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So what is the difference between Quantum Computing and Normal Computing? The differences lie in how information is stored, processed, and transferred between Quantum Computing devices.
How Quantum Computers work?
Quantum computers are made of Quantum bits (a ‘qubit’) which can be a 0 or 1 but also both at the same time. Quantum physics means that if two qubits are created or interacted with simultaneously then they will become entangled, this means information from one qubit is carried over to the other.
Entanglement allows Quantum Computers to perform operations more complicated than binary electronic computers allow us to do today. Examples of Quantum Computing Operations are Shor’s Algorithm, Grover’s algorithm, and quantum teleportation.
These Quantum algorithms have far greater capabilities than traditional computing devices, enabling them to solve certain difficult problems much faster than normal computers can. Researchers are also working on Quantum computers, which will have even more Quantum bits, enabling them to process and store a lot more information at the same time.
Quantum Physics vs Quantum Computing
We can’t use Quantum computing to create a black hole or travel back in time, Quantum physics and Quantum Computers are two separate things with two different functions.
Quantum Physics is used to describe the behavior of particles that make up matter, whereas Quantum Computers are used to solve mathematical problems quickly, as well as store and transfer data efficiently. In order for Quantum computing devices to work, they must be kept very cool around 16 degrees below zero Celsius (-269 °Fahrenheit) so that atoms do not interact with each other except when measurements are being taken. This is done through Quantum Entanglement.
Quantum Entanglement works because Quantum particles are so small that they have no defined location, this means Quantum Entanglement is unlikely to be disrupted by other matter around it. Quantum Entanglement allows Quantum Computers to perform calculations much faster than normal electronic computers.
What are Quantum Computers used for?
Quantum computers, like their predecessors (normal electronic computers), are mainly used to help scientists tackle difficult problems in various fields of study such as physics, chemistry, and mathematics. Quantum Computers can also be used for data storage, they do this by storing data on atoms or molecules at very cold temperatures (as cold as Absolute Zero -80 degrees Celsius).
History of Quantum Computing
Quantum Computers are just the latest development in Quantum Physics. Quantum Physics, which was first proposed by Max Planck back in 1900 is a branch of Quantum Mechanics that studies matter at the Quantum scale (i.e. very small particles).
Quantum computers build on Quantum Mechanics to create devices that can solve problems much faster than normal electronic computers.
The father of Quantum Computing is Paul Benioff who first proposed Quantum Computing in 1981, he also coined the term Quantum Computer (he called it The Ultimate Machine). His proposal was followed by other notable scientists such as Richard Feynman, Yuri Manin, and David Deutsch.
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However, it wasn’t until 1985 when David Deutsch published his paper ‘Quantum theory, the Church-Turing principle, and the universal quantum computer’ that Quantum Computers started to be taken seriously as a concept, this was followed by Peter Shor’s.
Quantum Computing algorithm that could solve complex problems much faster than normal computers could. This Quantum computing algorithm is what made Quantum computers a reality, as it showed Quantum computing was possible. On the 22nd of June 2016, IBM created the world’s smallest Quantum Computer.
Future of Quantum Computing
Quantum computers will be able to store Quantum data much more efficiently, Quantum Computers will be able to do this by using Quantum entanglement is what allows Quantum computers to perform Quantum computing.
Quantum Entanglement works because Quantum particles are so small that they have no defined location (they can’t be detected), this means Quantum Entanglement is unlikely to be disrupted by other matter around it.
Quantum Entanglement allows Quantum Computers to perform calculations much faster than normal electronic computers. However, Quantum Computers don’t ‘calculate’ like ordinary computers as they don’t process information as a conventional computer does, instead Quantum Computers use quantum algorithms.
Quantum Algorithms allow for multiple potential solutions, but the Quantum Computer has the ability to choose the most likely one (as Quantum computers are 99.7% accurate)
Are Quantum Computers dangerous?
Quantum Computers can be used to decrypt information stored on normal electronic computers, its algorithms allow Quantum computers to find solutions for complex mathematical problems much faster than normal electronic computers, but they can also be used to crack encryption codes.
Quantum computer algorithms could theoretically crack all the world’s top-level encryption codes, given enough time. Quantum Algorithms would search through every possible combination just like a normal computer would but instead of taking years or even decades it would take seconds/minutes/hours etc.
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It isn’t known exactly how long these calculations will take because Quantum computers are Quantum systems and Quantum systems are very complex. Quantum Computers may even be capable of affecting Quantum Theory itself in a sense.
How long before Quantum Computers become a reality?
It isn’t known exactly how long it will take for Quantum computers to become a reality, but scientists believe the first Quantum computer prototypes could be available within the next few years.
As Quantum computing is still in its early stages the research being done into Quantum theory and Quantum computation is vast and this makes it difficult to calculate just when quantum computers will become a reality, however, it has been stated that quantum computers could potentially replace electronic ones in certain areas such as mathematical calculations or data storage.
What can you do to prepare for the arrival of Quantum computers?
There is nothing you can do to prepare for Quantum Computers coming into use. Quantum Computers will be used similarly to electronic computers, but they will probably be more accurate.
Quantum Computers can simulate things much better than conventional computers, and this means that Mathematics and Physics could potentially be recreated.
Quantum simulations have already been done which have shown how atoms work, these simulations have allowed us to understand the complexity of Quantum systems in ways we were unable to before, however it’s not just mathematics and physics that may be affected by Quantum Computers.
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Quantum Biology: One area of research using Quantum simulations is called ‘Quantum Biology’ where researchers are trying to understand Quantum Biology. Quantum Computers could potentially be able to simulate concepts such as photosynthesis or even life itself. This would allow us to understand how living organisms work on a quantum level, which could lead the way to advances in medicine.
Quantum Teleportation: Quantum computers can also be used for teleportation, this means that entangled particles could act as keys to unlock information. Using these ‘keys’ information about one system (a particle) is transported into another (another particle).
The first part of the teleportation process involves entangling two qubits, it then uses either an eavesdropper attack or active attacks where noise, light, etc. Affect the first part of the transmission, and this allows data transfer between parties without alerting the parties that the Quantum information is being transmitted.
Quantum Teleportation has been used to teleport data from one location to another, this means files can be transferred faster than ever before, however, it’s not just files that could be transported by teleportation, scientists have stated that they believe people could also teleport in the future.
Galaxies: Quantum computers can simulate interactions between large numbers of particles, and this means that we could understand more about processes such as how planets interact with each other or even how black holes interact with galaxies. The simulations allow us to observe these interactions in ways we would not otherwise be able to do.
One area of research for Quantum computing is quantum cryptography, which means creating systems that cannot be hacked, this could have massive implications for everything from banking to storing classified information. Using satellites with entangled particles, a ‘quantum internet’ would allow the secure transmission of information even when it’s being monitored by criminals or other groups.
Quantum Computing could potentially allow hackers to infiltrate computer systems and access information that was not designed to be accessible.
One way around this would be the use of Quantum cryptography, where entangled particles are used to create keys. Quantum computers can act as teleport hubs, which means that quantum teleports could be used to transport teleported Cryptography.
It’s believed that Quantum computing will be commercially available within the next decade, a quantum computer has already been created that can be used to factor large numbers.
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This post was originally published on 3, December 2021, but according to new information stuff, this post is updated frequently.